# Spectrum R&D Technologies

The Science and Technology Center for Computer Simulation Spectrum R&D specializes in high-tech computer simulation in civil engineering. The team of the center have experience in modeling high-rise buildings, air terminal complexes, sports facilities, shopping and recreation centers and cinemas, bridges and tunnels, industrial enterprises, hydraulic structures and power plants. The possibility of connecting experts of the Spectrum group of companies in any direction of construction allows to solve almost any complex problem of modern civil engineering.

In the Spectrum group of companies advanced software in the field of numerical simulation, design analysis and BIM-modelling is used at the expert level. This allows to develop an optimal strategy of work applicable to the problem being solved, as well as to perform comparative analysis using different software. The use of modern high-performance computing technologies allows solving the most complex problem of numerical simulation in civil engineering.

### Aerodynamic analysis (CFD simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Computational architecture and civil engineering aerodynamics is the newest direction of design analysis in civil engineering.

Aerodynamics affects not only the wind loads, but also the comfort of people inside and outside the building, and the environmental situation. Previously, the aerodynamic aspects in the design were taken into account approximately. The main method of research was and continues to be the testing of the scale model of building in wind tunnel. However, this method of research is expensive and sophisticated. It is usually used in the design of buildings with increased responsibility. The results of wind tunnel tests often require additional interpretation.

The advantage of CFD simulation is that it can be used in almost any project. This is made possible by reducing the cost of aerodynamic research. In addition, CFD-modeling has the same advantages in terms of efficiency and ease of presentation of results as other types of computer analysis.

CFD simulation opens new opportunities in design of translucent structures and hinged facade systems of complex shape, in creating of comfortable indoor microclimate, in increasing of the energy efficiency of buildings. CFD simulation is a universal technology that allows the aerodynamics analysis for any form of buildings and structures, for any surrounding buildings, for any terrain, for any configuration of internal premises.

CFD-modeling is used to determine wind loads, to estimate pedestrian comfort, to optimize the indoor microclimate, to simulate the spread of air pollution, to estimate the wind potential.

### Thermal analysis by the finite element method

Computer simulation of heat transfer are used in many problems of civil engineering.

In energy-efficient construction, the temperature fields and the heat fluxes are determined in the connection of the building envelope in places of heat engineering inhomogeneities. The analysis results are used for heat engineering optimization of structural connection in order to reduce the effect of thermal bridges. The value of heat flux through the heat engineering heterogeneity is required to determine the coefficient of thermal engineering uniformity of the heat-shielding envelope of the building.

Analysis of temperature fields are necessary for structural analysis with considerations for temperature effects. This is necessary, for example, for the analysis of massive structures with seasonal temperature effects, or when taking into account the temperature effect of a fire.

The methodology for analysis of temperature fields is closely related to the methodology for analysis of filtration in soils using the method of temperature analogy.

### Structural analysis (finite element simulation of stress-strain state)

Computer structural analysis has become the "gold standard" of design since the 1990s and is widely used in working practice.

The Spectrum R&D specializes in innovative directions of structural analysis, such as highly non-linear simulation of joints of metal structures and reinforced concrete structures, simulation of large-scale techno-natural systems "building/construction - foundation".

Numerical simulation capabilities makes it possible to reproduce design schemes of any buildings and structures, to perform static and dynamic analysis, to solve highly nonlinear problems, to simulate step-by-step, progressive collapse, cracking of concrete, plastic deformation of steel, various types of contact interactions. A significant achievement of numerical modeling was the development of the technology of non-linear compositional modeling of reinforced concrete taking into account the physically independent work of concrete and reinforcement.

### Multiphysical analysis

Multiphysical (interdisciplinary, connected) analysis is an analysis simultaneously in two or more areas of physics, for example, "stress-strain state + heat transfer", or "stress-strain state + aerodynamics". Real civil engineering problems are inherently multi-physical (and structural loads, and temperature, and wind act simultaneously), so the introduction of multi-physical modeling is the way to develop more representative design schemes and to perform more accurate analysis.

Multiphysical simulation opens up new opportunities in construction, especially when building unique structures that require a new level of design analysis.

### Solution of non-standard problems

The universality of numerical simulation and the possibility of solving non-standard problems is provided by application programming, which allows to reproduce the most unusual loads and the laws of their changes in time and space, to parameterize models, to solve problems of import/export of information. The Spectrum R&D has accumulated a wide experience of applied programming using various programming languages and technologies in solving practical problems of design analysis.